Friday, November 1, 2013

O que é BitCoin?

Talvez você já tenha ouvido falar de BitCoin – ela quer sacodir toda a economia global. É um tipo de moeda online – uma alternativa para dólares, euros e reais. Bem, o que isso significa? É complicado, mas nós iremos explicar com mais detalhes.
Bitcoin é uma moeda virtual…
BitCoin não é dinheiro de verdade. É uma “unidade monetária” online – tokens virtuais que podem ser trocados por bens e serviços em lugares que o aceitam, da mesma maneira como você trocaria um Real por um pão na chapa.
…com aspirações enormes…
Em seu manifesto do YouTube, os criadores do BitCoin dizem que eles irão revolucionar as finanças globais da mesma maneira que a web mudou a indústria editorial. Uma meta bastante ambiciosa, tentar ser uma moeda global do mesmo jeito que (ou para substituir) o dólar. Nas atuais circunstâncias, é o sonho mais improvável, dentre todos os sonhos praticamente inalcançáveis.
…que é trocada via P2P…
Quando você preenche um cheque e entrega para uma amiga, o dinheiro da sua conta é retirado do seu banco e então transferido para o banco dela, e então ela (talvez) faça um saque em dinheiro. Com BitCoin não há intermediários (a não ser os próprios utilizadores da rede). O dinheiro passa direto de você para quem quer que seja, através do sistema P2P do BitCoin, sem agências intermediárias repassando as fichas.
…e gerada por seus usuários…
É aqui que começa a ficar um pouco estranho! Diferente de unidades monetárias tradicionais, que são baseadas em alguma coisa, (seja ouro, prata, ou um banco central), BitCoins são geradas do nada. Através de um processo chamado “mineração,” um app fica no seu computador e lentamente – bem lentamente – cria novas BitCoins em troca de fornecer poder computacional para processar as transações. Quando uma nova fornada de moedas está pronta, elas são distribuídas de acordo com a probabilidade de quem teve o maior poder computacional no processo de mineração. O sistema é feito para que não mais de 21 milhões de BitCoins existam – então o processo de mineração será cada vez menos rentável com o passar do tempo, conforme mais pessoas se cadastrem. Isso faz com que o sistema inteiro seja mais vantajoso para early adopters.
…para ser gasta nos poucos lugares onde BitCoins são aceitas…
Não são muitos os lugares que aceitam BitCoins no momento, diferente de moedas tradicionais. Mas os incentivos para que pequenos negócios comecem a usá-las não são ruins – é gratuito para usar, e não existem taxas de transação. No momento você pode comprar serviços de um web designer, jogos independentes para PC, bijuterias artesanais, armas e, cada vez mais, drogas ilegais.
…ou convertido em dinheiro de verdade…
Assim como você pode trocar ienes por dólares, você pode trocar suas BitCoins com outros usuários por diferentes moedas do “mundo real”. E no momento, o BitCoin está em alta! Agora, mesmo, um BitCoin vale U$7.5. Nada mal.
…e não tem nada parecido no Brasil até o momento.
Algumas outras tentativas de moeda eletrônica chegaram aos Estados Unidos e Europa, como o DigiCashLiberty Dolar e e-gold, mas não obtiveram muito sucesso; talvez por serem centralizadas, ou talvez porque o meio de obtê-las era trocando por dinheiro real – e algumas até enfrentam acusações de fraude. Até o momento, não encontrei nenhum relato de iniciativas de Moeda Online no Brasil, ou de alguma das citadas ter chegado por aqui. Vocês conhecem? E, mais importante, apostariam dinheiro de verdade em dinheiro de mentira que não seja o consagrado ouro de World of Warcraft?

27 comments:

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